The Islamic Golden Age was when cultural, economic, and scientific fields were at their peak from the 8th century to the 14th century. It was the period when different Caliphs ruled the Islamic world. During this time, economically, scientifically, and culturally, the Islamic world was proliferating. The period began during Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid (786–809) and with the inauguration of The Wisdom House in BAGHDAD. Scholars from various portions of the world used to gather there, and classic knowledge was translated into Arabic languages from different languages. Baghdad was centrally located between Europe and Asia and was essential for trade business and exchanging ideas and knowledge. The scholars residing in Baghdad translated Greek texts and made many scientific developments that are why the era of that time is known as the Golden Age of Islam. Learn about Online Islamic Courses.
HUB OF KNOWLEDGE:
The Abbasid Caliphs Harun al-Rashid and his son established a House of Wisdom in Baghdad. The House of Wisdom was used more often and got more recognition and prestige during the Ma’mun’s rule, from 813 to 833. He invited different scholars from various parts of the world to Baghdad. Muslims, Christians, and Jews all collaborated and worked peacefully there. The House of Wisdom was a library, translation institution, and knowledge hub.
TRANSLATION OF LITERATURE AND PHILOSOPHY:
Caliphs like Al-Rashid and Al-Mamun started the movement of translation. Different literature and philosophy work was translated from the Greek language to the Arabic language. The aim of Abbasid’s rulers was to translate their work like Aristotle’s works available to the Islamic world, and that was only possible by translating it into the Arabic language. They wanted to store more and more knowledge of Greece for Arab people. Moreover, the Syrian scholars also translated their work into the Arabic language.
FORMATION OF PAPER:
The Arabs learned the art of the production of papers from the Chinese. The art learning turned out to be so helpful for them as they started to save their knowledge in written form on papers. They started producing their friction material also. The Best-known friction is s The Book of One Thousand and One Nights, which began to form in the 10th century and was formed entirely in the 14th century.
DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE, MATHEMATICS, AND MEDICINE:
During the golden age of Islam, many subjects were introduced to the Muslim world. Many Islamic scholars contributed to different fields of knowledge. Some of the most famous scholars who worked for the development of the Islamic world are:
AL-RAZI was considered as most outstanding physician of the Islamic world and was also known as “doctor’s doctor. ” He was the first one to divide materials into 6 categories. He wrote more than 200 books. His book, Kitab al-Mansouri, is one of the most influential medical books of the medieval ages.
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AL-KHWARIZMI, also known as the Father of Algebra, introduced the concept of Algebra to the Islamic world. He also used to work in the house of wisdom. There he published his famous book, Al-Kitab al-mukhtaṣar fī ḥisāb al-jabrwal-muqābala. The term Algebra was also derived from there. He also introduced the concept of whole numbers to the world.
IBN AL HAITHAM, also known as the Father of Optics. He was best in the field of optics. With the help of different experiments, he proved that vision first bounces an object before being directed towards the eyes. He invented the world’s first camera and the pinhole camera. His work helped develop different objects like eyeglasses, microscopes, and telescopes.
AVICCENA wrote the Canon of Medicine, which helped the physicians diagnose different dangerous diseases such as cancer.
DEVELOPMENT OF ART AND CULTURE:
Art and culture were also introduced to the people during that period. Calligraphy, the art of calligraphy, was practiced at that time. The calligraphy was also done on papyrus and parchment before papers. Islamic calligraphy is still used on many decorative items. Ceramics, glass, metalwork, and woodwork also flourished during that time.
Different scholars made a significant contribution in preserving different Greek and Persian knowledge for the benefit of the Islamic World. In addition to preserving knowledge, they also introduced new concepts of art and knowledge to the world, which were followed by the Western world. Many new surgical instruments and various forms of art and culture were introduced, which helped in the progress of the Islamic world.