Different Types of Fistula

Types of Fistula

Fistulotomy, one of the most common surgical procedures used to treat fistulas, is one. You may be wondering what fistulas are. Sometimes, abscess growth can occur when two of your organs are connected. Fistula is an abnormal growth. Fistulas can happen in any part.

Fistulotomy is a procedure that involves the opening and drainage of the pockets. This is in contrast to fistulectomy which involves the surgical removal of the abnormal growth.

Although fistulas and fistulotomy sound scary and alarming, they are not serious. Fistulotomy can be performed as an outpatient procedure and you will be able to return home within a few hours.
Before we get into the fistulotomy procedure let’s first understand why a fistula grows.

What is fistula?

A fistula is simply an abnormal connection between two surfaces. It can be a connection between organs or blood vessels, or even between tracts. These abnormal connections can occur naturally, or they may be caused by injury or surgery.
Fistulas can occur in any part of the body, but most commonly around the anus. Fistulas can develop at any stage of the body.
When a pocket is formed with two openings over time, it is called a complete fistula. This pocket can be filled by pus or abscess. A fistula that is incomplete has only one opening. Blind fistulas are open on one side, and closed on the opposite. If left untreated, incomplete or blind fistulas may grow into complete fistulas.

What causes fistula?

Fistula can occur for many reasons. Fistula can form naturally, or as a result of surgery or injury.

Anal fistula, the most common type of fistula, can occur naturally over time. Sometimes, a fistula may form between the intestines and the vagina. This is also normal.

Fistula can develop near the anus in those with gastrointestinal conditions such as colitis, Chron’s disease and Irritating Bowel Diseases. Fistula growth may also occur in women after childbirth.

Different Types of fistula

Anal fistulas are most common. There are many other types of fistulas you should be aware of:

  1. Anal: There are three types of fistula growth around anus. Anorectal fistula is a fistula that forms between the anal canal, the skin surrounding the anal opening and the skin. It is also known as anovaginal, rectovaginal, or anovaginal fistula. A fistula can sometimes form between the colon or vagina. This is known as colovaginal fistula.
  2. Enteroenteric fistula is a condition in which a fistula develops between two parts or an intestine. Fistulas can also occur between the small and large intestines and the skin.
  3. Urinary tract: A fistula between the urinary bladder, uterus and vaginal can also occur. A hole can sometimes form between the bladder and the vagina. Sometimes, it may also develop between the urethra or the vagina.

Fistula symptoms – When should you visit a doctor?

A fistula is a condition that affects a specific part of the body.

These are some symptoms of anal fistula:-

  • Redness and skin irritation around the anus
  • Growing pains in the anal area, which get worse when you sit, walk, or cough.
  • Chills and fever are often associated with flu.
  • Rectal bleeding and painful bowel movements
  • Foul smell coming from the anus
  • Fatigue

Intestinal fitsulas can be characterized by:

  • Abdominal pain, or pain between the genitals/anus
  • Recurrent infections of the urinary tract
  • Diarrhea or severe gas
  • Stool or intestinal gas passing through the stomach, bladder, or vaginal area
  • Weight loss

These are the symptoms of urinary tract fitulas

  • Passing urine causes pain
  • Frequent urination
  • Ureter smells cloudy and muddy
  • Muddy-colored urine
  • While urinating, you might pass wind or stools.

What is fistulotomy?

Your Fistula doctor in Kolkata will decide whether to prescribe medication or perform surgery depending on how severe the fistula is. Fistulotomy, which is the best way to treat a fistula, is the best option.

Fistulotomy involves removing the contents of the fistula by cutting it open. It is then allowed to heal naturally after it has been drained. The doctor will determine how severe the fistula to be depending on its size.

Your doctor will perform a fistulotomy to open the fistula. You will need medication to treat any infection or if there is blood or pus leaking from the fistula.

What to expect during fistulotomy?

\There is nothing to worry about if you have a fistulotomy scheduled. To ease pain, the fistulotomy procedure takes place under anesthesia. After the anesthesia wears off, you may feel a slight sensation in the fistulotomy area.

You may be discharged from the hospital within 24 hours depending on the severity of your fistula. It is important to get your fistulotomy repaired as soon as possible.

Follow your Fistula Specialist advice regarding diet, exercise, and any other strenuous activity.


Fistula can lead to serious complications. Fistulas can become infected and leak pus or blood if left untreated. If not treated promptly, they can pose serious health risks.

You should seek medical attention immediately if you suspect you may have a fistula. The only way to control an infection is with medication. Fistulotomy can be a better way to treat a fistula. Fistulotomy isn’t as painful as major surgery, and it does just as good at treating fistulas.

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